Vietnamese architecture arises from the Kings Hung dynasty.
Before the 10th century, villages and hamlets appeared in
this period according to several tales of Linh
Due to dense lakes, swamps, rivers, and highly humid tropical climate, the most appropriate building material is bamboo and wood to set up houses on low stilts. At the end of the 19th century, houses on stilts remained in mountainous areas, midlands, and plains throughout the country.
In order to be suitable with the rugged terrain, Co Loa Citadel was made out of clay during Thuc Phan Dynasty in the 3rd century BC. The architecture during the Chinese sovereignty, from the 2nd century BC to the 9th century, consisted of various structures like ramparts, royal tombs, citadels, folk-houses, and pagodas.
The center of the significant development was in
Generally, the architecture of Ly Dynasty, 11th and 12th centuries, had five orthodox styles: citadels, palaces, castles, pagodas, and houses.
Thang Long Citadel had a complex of palaces, many of which
were 3-4 floor temples. At that time, the Thang Long culture
deeply reflected the cultural characteristic of the
tower-pagoda. The architectural characteristics of the Ly
Dynasty were residential complexes, more ornamental roofs,
doors, door-steps, banisters, and rounded statues, all in a
suitable design for the climate and traditional customs of
But Thap Pagoda in
The pagoda and temple construction techniques achieved progress during the 18th century.
The complexity and structure of Pho Minh Pagoda is an outstanding example of the architectural style of the Tran Dynasty period and of the following centuries. The structure was designed in 3 main sections: the lobby, main hall, and sanctuary.
The inside yard, or interior garden, played an important role in the traditional architectural style and reflected the concept of oriental space. The contemporary architecture of royal palaces was designed with upper floors and systems of consecutive corridors in an open-air space, which was very convenient for living in a warm climate. In spite of the crowded development, the majority of construction materials were still bamboo and wood.
Even though the Ho Dynasty lasted for only 7 years, it left
an outstanding architectural heritage such as the Tay Do
Modern and Contemporary Architecture
Many new urban and residential areas, industrial zones, and new villages with major architectural works have brought high artistic value to regional development. Nowadays, architectural development consists of 5 main domains: interior design, architectural design, environmental design, urban planning, and regional planning. Also, issues on spontaneous development of urban area, protection of architectural relics, and house-building strategies are problems that need urgent solutions.